Glossary


Pakihi
A term which in its strict sense refers to open clears within forest dominated by low scrub and rushes. However, more usually used to refer natural and induced wetlands and their associated shrublands. A vernacular most frequently used in the West Coast for impoverished soils and their associated peats, left after forest has been cleared
Palea
The small upper bract enclosing the flower of a grass
palea
1. The upper of the two bracts that enclose each floret in a grass spikelet.
2. A small bract at the base of a disc floret in some plants of the composite family.
3. Scales on various parts of ferns (referred to as paleate or paleaceous).

From the Latin word for 'chaff'.
paleae
Plural of palea, from the Latin word for 'chaff'.

1. The upper of the two bracts that enclose each floret in a grass spikelet.
2. A small bract at the base of a disc floret in some plants of the composite family.
3. Scales on various parts of ferns (referred to as paleate or paleaceous).
Palmately
Radiating from a point, as fingers radiating from the palm of a hand.
A palmately compound leaf Palmate leaves of Pseudopanax lessonii
Palmatifid
Deeply divided into several lobes arising from more or less the same level.
A palmatifid leaf A palmatifid leaf of Hibiscus diversifolius
Palmatisect
Intermediate between palmate and palmatifid, i.e. the segments are not fully separated at the base; often more or less digitate.
A palmatisect leaf A palmatisect leaf of Hibiscus trionum
Palustrine
Pertaining to wet or marshy habitats. Term covers mires and marshes
Pandurate
Fiddle-shaped.
Leaf showing a fiddle shape Fiddle shape leaf of Streblus
Panicle
Highly branched (multiple raceme).
Panicle of Rubus cissoides
Papilla
A short rounded projection.
Papillae
A soft, fleshy projection, usually small and nipple–like.
Papillate
With short rounded projections.
Papillose
Warty, with short rounded projections or gland-dotted
Parallel venation
Veins are parallel along leaf.
Parasite
An organism that derives all its nourishment from its host.
Patent
Spreading or expanded, e.g., spreading petals.
 Spreading leaves of Dacrydium kirkii
Peat
A mass of partially carbonised plant tissue formed by partial decomposition in water of various plants and especially of mosses of the genus Sphagnum, widely found in many parts of the world, varying in consistency from a turf to a slime used as a fertiliser, as stable litter, as a fuel, and for making charcoal. Partially carbonized vegetable matter saturated with water; can be used as a fuel when dried. A type of soil deriving from dead organic material situated in a wet area, where the reduced amount of [[oxygen available in the wet conditions results in the organic material not decomposing as much as it usually would do so in the presence of more oxygen. Used in growing media. Represents an important carbon sink –drainage of peat releases large amounts of carbon (CO2) to the atmosphere.
Pedicel
The stalk of a single flower in an inflorescence or fruit (either in a cluster or existing singularly).
Pedicel of Weinmannia silvicola
Peduncle
The stalk of a solitary flower or the main stalk of an inflorescence or flower cluster.
Peduncle of Lobelia angulata
Pedunculate
Describing fruits, which are borne on a stalk (a peduncle).
Pellucid
Transparent.
Transparent leaf spots of Myoporum laetum
Peltate
Shield-like, with the stalk attached well inside the margin
A peltate leaf base Peltate Drosera peltata Peltate Drosera peltata
Pendent
Hanging down from its support
Pendulous
Hanging or drooping.
Penicillate
With a tuft of hairs at the end, like a brush.
Perennial
A plant lasting for three seasons or more
Perianth
A collective term for the calyx (sepals or tepals) and corolla (petals) of the flower, especially when these are indistinguishable
Petal
Part of flower inside the sepals; usually coloured.
Petal of Carmichaelia williamsii
Petiolate
Having a petiole.
Petiole
Leaf stalk.
Leaf stalk (flattened) of Melicope simplex Leaf stalk of Melicytus ramiflorus Leaf stalk of Schefflera digitata
phloem
The vascular tissue in land plants that is primarily responsible for the distribution of sugars and nutrients manufactured in a shoot.
Photopoint
A monitoring technique where repeat photos are taken of the same scene from the same point over a period of time in order to quantify changes.
Pilose
Bearing long, soft hairs.
Pilose leaf surfaces of Nertera dichondrifolia
Pinna
A segment of a divided lamina that is classified as primary, secondary or tertiary according to the degree of dissection of the lamina.
The pinna of mamaku (Cyathea medularis)
Pinnae
Divisions of a pinnate leaf
Pinnate
With leaflets arranged regularly in two rows on either side of a stalk as in a feather; the lamina on a fern is divided into separate pinnae
A pinnately compound leaf A pinnate leaf
Pinnatifid
Pinnately lobed, cleft more than halfway to the midrib. Not cleft all the way to the rachis.
A pinnatifid leaf tip Pinnatifid leaf of Schefflera digitata
Pinnatisect
Pinnately divided almost to midrib but segments still confluent.
A pinnatisect leaf A pinnatisect leaf of poroporo A pinnatisect leaf of poroporo (Solanum aviculare)
Pioneer
Plant species are hardy species that should be planted first to establish a good canopy cover that restricts weed growth and promotes natural regeneration. In natural ecosystems these are the first plants to arrive and grow on a site.
Pistil
The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an ovary, style, and stigma.
Pistillate
A flower with one or more pistils, but no stamens.
Pistillate flowers of Coprosma perpusilla subsp. perpusilla
Plano-convex
Flat on one side, convex on the other.
Plumose
Feathery.
Plumose Arthropodium cirrhatum
Podzol
Infertile, acidic soil, strongly leached to form a whitish-grey subsoil underlain by a layer enriched in iron, aluminium and organic matter; usually under forest in a wet temperate climate.
Pole
A subcanopy size individual with a long thin trunk and foliage tuft of a potential canopy tree.
Pollinia
Compact masses of orchid pollen.
Population enhancement
Increasing a population for a specific biological purpose, e.g., when a species is already present in an area but extra individuals are added to address a sex imbalance.
Porrect
Extending forward.
Porrect lateral sepals of the orchid Pterostylis porrecta
Procumbent
Lying and flat along the ground but not rooting
Procumbent
Propagate
To reproduce a plant by sexual (i.e., from seed) or asexual (e.g., from cuttings) means.
Prostrate
A general term for lying flat along the ground. This includes procumbent (that is lying and flat along the ground but not rooting) and decumbent (with a prostrate or curved base and an erect or ascending tip).
Prostrate Melicytus crassifolius.
Provenance
The place of origin (of a plant that is in cultivation).
Proximal
Toward the base or point of attachment (cf. distal).
Pseudobulb
Thickened surface stem; usually looking like a bulb.
Pseudobulb of Ichthyostomum pygmaeum
Pseudoterminal
Falsely terminal – as in a bud which appears to occupy a terminal position but does not
Puberulent
Minutely clad in short, soft hairs
Pubescence
Covering of soft, fine hairs
Pubescent
Covered in short, soft hairs.
Pubescent foliage of Metrosideros excelsa
Pungent
Ending in a stiff sharp point
Pungent leaf of Leptospermum scopraium
Pustule
Small blister-like elevation.
Pustule on Entelia arborescens trunk

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