Early successional species
Plants which are able to colonise an open area after disturbance but which are often temporary and are replaced by taller plants in time and shaded out.
having sharply pointed spines or bristles.
Sharply pointed spines on the seed heads of Entelea arborescens (whau)
Ecological district
A characteristic landscape and biological community defined in the PNA (Protected Natural Area) programme.
Ecological restoration
Attempt to reinstate original (pre-disturbance) state of a habitat, plant community or ecosystem.
Plants sourced from seed collected from similar naturally growing plants in the area of the planting site.
Using native plants grown from locally grown seeds. Eco-sourced plants help to preserve the ecological distinctiveness of an area, and ecosourced plants fare better and are adapted to survive in the local conditions.
Without glands.
Fleshy, oil-rich structure attached to seed that attracts ants which act as dispersers.
Elliptic in long section and circular in cross-section.
Ellipsoid fruit of Rhopalostylus sapida (nikau)
Broadest at the middle
Illustration of elliptic leaf
With a notch at the apex.
Leaf with an emarginate tip
Having a shallow notch at the tip, as in some petals and leaves.
In an aquatic sense - wetland herbs that are rooted in the substrate below water level, but carry leaves and stems above the water level e.g. rushes and raupo. Found on the shallow margins of lakes, ponds and waterways. In a forest sense - tree that is appearing above the surrounding canopy.
Emergent Metrosideros robusta (northern rata) Wetland emergents
Emergent marginals
An aquatic plant having most of its structure above water. Other aquatic plants are submerged or floating.
Unique or confined to a place or region, found naturally nowhere else.
An endosymbiont (usually a bacterium or fungus) that lives within a plant for at least part of its life without causing any apparent disease.
Endosymbionts (usually bacteria or fungi) that live within plants for at least part of their lives without causing any apparent disease.
The nutritive tissue of a seed, consisting of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.
Enrichment planting
Returning to a revegetation site and creating gaps, or filling existing gaps, with different plants of plants, usually later successional plants which may not have survived being planted in the first phases of the project.
Sword shaped
Sword shaped foliage of xeronema callistemon (Poor Knight's lily) Ensiform leaf shape
Smooth. Without teeth, notches or divisions.
Leaves of Corynocarpus laevigatus (karaka) without teeth Illustration of entire leaf edge
Pollinated by insects.
Astelia being pollinated by insects
Calyx–like structure outside, but close to, the true calyx.
Growing on or close to the ground or emerging from the ground after germination (often used for cotyledons).
A plant that grows upon another plant but is not parasitic and does not draw nourishment from it.
Epiphytic orchid Epiphytic perching lily
Growing upon another plant but not parasitic and not drawing nourishment it
Irregularly toothed, as if gnawed.
Illustration of erose leaf
Pertaining to the meeting of freshwater and seawater wetlands.
The study of people's classification, management and use of plants.
Sporangia that arise from groups of epidermal cells
Lasting a very short time or running a short distance.
Ex situ
Away from the place of natural occurrence.
Maintenance of plants as live specimens or propagules in cultivation as insurance against the loss of wild populations and as source for material for translocation.
Having the axis prolonged to form an undivided main stem or trunk (as in conifers).

Agathis australis - the extended, undivided main trunk
Outside an enclosing sheath

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