Glossary


Caespitose
Growing in dense tufts
Caespitose Uncinia banksii.
Calli
Circular, warty, stalked thickenings commonly found on the lip (labellum) of the orchid (plural of callus).
Two rows of calli on the labellum of the orchid Caladenia chlorostyla
Callose
Hardened or thickened.
Callus
Stalked thickening on the lip (labellum) of an orchid.
Two rows of calli on the labellum of the orchid Caladenia chlorostyla
Calyx
The group of sepals, or outer floral leaves, of a flower
The calyx of Corynocarpus laevigatus (karaka)
Campanulate
Bell-shaped.
Canaliculate
With longitudinal channels or grooves.
Canopy
The uppermost cover formed by the branches and leaves of trees or the spread of bushes,shrubs and ground covers.
The forest canopy The forest canopy
Canopy closure
Stage where canopies of shrub and tree species meet.
Canopy manipulation
Selectively removing vegetation to create gaps to facilitate natural invasion of native plants, or to plant later successional plants.
Capillary
Hair-like
Capitula
Plural of capitulum: A dense head-like inflorescence of many flowers as occurs in most Asteraceae (daisies)
Capitula of Brachyglottis kirkii var kirkii
Capitulum
A dense head-like inflorescence of many flowers as occurs in most Asteraceae (daisies)
A capitulum of Brachyglottis kirkii var kirkii flowers
Capsule
A dry fruit formed from two or more fused carpels that splits open when ripe.
The capsule of Pittosporum cornifolium
Carbon sinks
Carbon locked away, or sequestered e.g. by trees
Carpel
One unit of the female part of a flower that consists of a basal seed-bearing ovary joined to a receptive stigma by a stalk-like style.
Cauda
Tail-like appendage. (pl. caudae; adj. caudate)
The tall appendages of a greenhood orchid
Caudex
The axis of a woody plant, esp. a palm or tree fern, comprising the stem and root.
The caudex of Cyathea dealbata (silver fern)
Cauline
Belonging to the stem, as in cauline leaves emerging from the stem.
Cauline leaves of Diplodium brumalum Fruiting bodies of Dysoxylum spectabile (kohekohe) emerging from the stem
Cerise
Bright or deep red.
Chartaceous
Having a papery texture.
The papery texture of Baumea articulatum
Chlorophyll
The green pigment of plants.
The green leaves of plants
Chlorotic
Lacking chlorophyll, therefore yellowish, suffering from chlorosis.
Leaves of Coprosma grandifolia lacking chlorophyll
Cilia
Short small hair–like structures on a cell or microorganism
Ciliate
With small hairs (cilia).
The small hairs on the leaves of Pomaderris edgarleyi
Ciliolate
Diminutive of ciliate, i.e., having very small hairs
The very small hairs on the flowers of Geniostoma rupestris var ligustrifolium (hangehange)
Cladode
Flattened stem with the function of a leaf
The flattened photosynthesising stems of Carmichaelia australis
Cladodes
Usually flattened, photosynthetically active branches, these may be leaf–like (e.g., Phyllocladus) or branch–like (e.g., Carmichaelia)
Clavate
Club-shaped, gradually widening towards apex.
The club shapes on Knightia excelsa (rewarewa)
Cleft
Having indentations that extend about halfway to the center, as in certain leaves.
The cleft leaves of Phormium tenax (flax) Illustration of cleft leaf edge
Cleistogamous
Flowers that self-fertilise without opening.
Coherent
Sticking together of like parts.
Column
Stamen and stigmas fused to form a single organ.
Anterior view of column of Pterostylis cardiostigma with pollen on stigma. Lateral view of labellum and column of Pterostylis cardiostigma. Note pollen on stigma.
Columnar
Shaped like a column
The columns of Cordyline australis (cabbage tree) outside parliament in Wellington
Composite
many small flowers tightly packed together e.g., daisy flowers.
A composite inflorescence of Senecio lautus subsp. lautus
Compound
Composed of several similar parts (cf simple)
Compound leaves of Pseudopanax laetus A compound leaf of Pseudopanax laetus Illustration of digitally compound leaf
Concave
Curved inward.
Concolorous
Of the same colour.
Leaves of Vitex lucens (puriri) with the same colour
Conical
Cone-shaped.
Connate
Fusion of like parts.
Fusion of like parts in Diplodium trullifolium
Conspecific
Individuals of the same species.
Cordate
Heart-shaped with the notch at the base.
The cordate leaf of kawakawa A cordate leaf base
Coriaceous
Leather–like; thick, tough, and somewhat rigid.
The thick leathery leaves of Pittosporum cornifolium
Corolla
The whorl of petals of a flower.
The whorl of petals of Calystegia marginata
Corymb
Modified raceme where stalks of lower flowers are elongated to same level as the upper flowers.
The elongated flower stalks of Tecomanthe speciosa
Cosmopolitan
A species or other taxonomic group that is distributed widely throughout the world.
Costa
The midrib
Note the pronounced midrib of Pouteria
Crenate
With rounded teeth (bluntly toothed) along the margin.
The crenate leaves of Streblus banksii Illustration of crenate leaf edge
Crisped
Margin tightly wavy or crinkled, curled or wavy.
Illustration of crinkled or curled leaf
Cristate
With a crest.
Crown
The growing point of an upright rhizome or trunk. This usually produces a tuft or ring of fronds.
The crown of a Agathis australis (kauri) tree
Crura
The two small projections at the mouth of a utricle in Carex
Cucullate
Hood-shaped.
The cucullate post-anther lobe of the orchid Thelymitra longifolia
Culm
The erect stem of a grass.
Erect stem
Cuneate
Wedge-shaped.
The wedge shaped leaves of Pittosporum kirkii
Cupular
Cup-shaped.
Cups holding nikau (Rhopalostylis sapida) fruit
Cuttings
Stems and/or leaves taken from plants for propagation
Cuttings planted into a growing medium.
Cyathium
A cup-like structure that surrounds the inflorescence in Euphorbia
Cyme
Inflorescence at the terminus of a branch and where new flowering branches emerge laterally below the flower.
Cyme of Avicinnia marina subs. australasica (mangrove) Cyme of Hoheria populnea
Cytorace
Populations (or infraspecific taxa) that differ in chromosome number or chromosome morphology, e.g., Nematoceras trilobum agg. has two cytoraces, a diploid and a tetraploid (in which the chromosomes are doubled).
Cytotype
Populations (or infraspecific taxa) that differ in chromosome number or chromosome morphology, e.g., Nematoceras trilobum agg. has two cytotypes, a diploid and a tetraploid (in which the chromosomes are doubled).

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