Haloragis erecta subsp. erecta


Haloragis erecta subsp. erecta


Haloragis: salt grapes
erecta: erect

Common Name(s)

toatoa, fire weed, shrubby Haloragis

Current Threat Status

2012 - Not Threatened

Previous Threat Status

2009 - Not Threatened
2004 - Not Threatened


Haloragis erecta (Murray) Oken subsp. erecta



Flora Category

Vascular - Native


Cercodia erecta Murray, Haloragis colensoi Skottsb.


Endemic. New Zealand: Kermadec, North, South, Stewart and Chatham Islands.


Coastal to montane in forest or scrub. Often on slip scars or colonising recently cleared ground. Often appearing following fire (hence one of the common names).


Perennial herb or subshrub. Stems to c.1 m tall, decumbent to erect, freely branching, 4-angled, glabrous or scabrid. Leaves opposite. Petiole (0.2)-0.5-1.7-(3) cm long. Lamina (12-)15-70(-90) × (3-)-5-25-(-35) mm, lanceolate to elliptic or oblong-elliptic, strongly serrate with teeth to 4 mm long, glabrous or scabridulous; lateral veins obscure; base cuneate to truncate. Dichasia of 3-7 flowers; primary bracts ± serrate. Pedicels 0.5-0.6 mm long, to 1 mm at fruiting, deflexed until anthesis. Flowers 4-merous, often reddish. Sepals 0.8-1.2 mm long, deltoid, erect, persistent. Petals 1.5-.0(-2.5) mm long. Stamens 8. Anthers 1.2-1.7 mm long, oblong, red or yellow, the inner < outer. Ovary 4-celled, ribbed. Stigmas ± pink. Fruit 1.8-3.0 × 1.5-2.5(-4.0) mm (including the usually present, variable, deltoid wings), usually ovoid, rugose or smooth between ribs or wings.

Similar Taxa

None. The Surville Cliffs endemic H. erecta subsp. cartilaginea (Cheeseman) Orchard is scarcely any different. The main differences are its decumbent rather than erect habit and orbicular to broad-ovate leaves. In cultivation plants of this subspecies often become suberect, laxer, and the leaves less harshly scabrid.


Throughout the year

Main Flower Colour

Red / Pink

Other Flower Colour



Throughout the year

Propagation Technique

Easily grown from fresh seed and by cuttings. A somewhat weedy species which often appears following disturbance within forest and scrub, and which can at times appear within unkept gardens and wasteland within urban areas. Some forms are dark purple-red or maroon in colour.


Not Threatened

Chromosome No.

2n = 14

Endemic Taxon


Endemic Genus


Endemic Family


Where To Buy

Not commercially available.

References and further reading

Cunningham, A. 1839: Florae insularum Novae Zelandiae precu
rsor; or a specimen of the botany of the islands of New Zealand. Annals of Natural History 3: 29-34.
Moorfield, J. C. (2005). Te aka : Maori-English, English-Maori dictionary and index.  Pearson Longman:  Auckland, N.Z.
Orchard, A.E. 1975: Taxonomic Revisions in the Family Haloragaceae. I. The Genera Haloragis, Haloragodendron, Glischrocaryon, Meziella and Gonocarpus. Bull.Auckland Inst.Mus. 10: 1-299.
Thorsen, M. J.; Dickinson, K. J. M.; Seddon, P. J. 2009. Seed dispersal systems in the New Zealand flora. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11: 285-309

Webb, C. J.; Sykes, W. R.; Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988: Flora of New Zealand. Vol. IV. Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand, Botany Division, D.S.I.R.


This page last updated on 8 Oct 2014

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